Sunday, June 18, 2017

Insights During Other Instructor's Open Water Weekend... What you see when you looking from the other side.

The largest group I've trained at once since being independent is 5 students. Even so, I took only two out at a time. We did our certification dives at Battle Ground Lake, Washington, and all things being equal, the silty bottom, cold temperatures, limited visibility can be similar to the Puget Sound at times.

Being a dive instructor in the Pacific Northwest is not particularly difficult, but there are some things that I've learned along the way that make it easier. Making it a little bit easier comes from a great respect for the ocean and an understanding that the new diver is taking everything you tell them as the truth. If you don't have the answers, don't make it up or try to figure it out as you go.

Regrettably, the instructor is often under pressure to perform without assistance from another instructor, assistant instructor, or divemaster. They often have the pressures from the dive shop to get everyone done in the two days that were scheduled. Unfortunately, once an instructor believes that certification is granted upon completion of skills and dives, they order cert cards even if they believe that the student should get more dives in. Confidence is difficult to teach, however teaching students to be competent will build the confidence that each of us has within us. Confidence under pressure is particularly important during dive training. I would rather dive with a confident diver that fixes issues underwater and overcomes the urge to bolt to the surface than one that can perform mask clearing a dozen times yet is scared shitless every time they do it.

The dive industry typically allows one instructor to take up to 8 students at a time during certification dives. I don't know how this number came into existence, but in my opinion, that is way too many. I prefer two to be my maximum. One on each side. One for each hand... If we run into zero visibility conditions, I can grab onto each one and make our way out of the silt or back to the surface. Not knowing where your students are only becomes a problem if you never find them, but it usually means a couple of things. First, problems never occur. That is unlikely, although individual issues that are dealt with as they occur don't compound and eventually snowball into unmanageable issues. Secondly, those that have problems every dive, but because nothing bad ever happens, sets the norm lower than it should be. If divers expect to get separated, it will happen. If divers failure to communicate clearly, it will happen. If divers use more air than expected (into reserve limits), it will happen...

Being able to see more that one diver at a time is impossible if everyone is following the instructor, and incredibly difficult if everyone is side by side. On a typical day in the Puget Sound, 10 feet of visibility isn't unheard of. So, if a one student is on the left and one is on the right, more than 2 students just won't work... Does that mean that another diver on each side is responsible for themselves or is the diver next to them going to fulfill that role?


However you look at it, teaching in groups just doesn't work. Even in those days that visibility is greater, all it takes is one swift kick or one diver stopping to look at something and everyone can be out of site. 2 divers at a time must be the maximum an instructor takes out at any given time.

One of the issues I saw that is particularly disheartening is that not every diver has a dive buddy. Often, individuals sign up for scuba diving by themselves, and if they end up being the odd diver, they have to be the third wheel. Not only is it difficult to be that third diver, today's new divers are often socially and inadequately adept at getting to know strangers, let alone welcoming others into their circle. While this doesn't have to be the case, when the instructor fails to create a homogeneous group, you'll often see divers setting up equipment on their own, failing to have a buddy check their equipment, entering the water by themselves, but worst of all, exiting the water by themselves. Diving with a group takes coordination that is not part of a typical dive plan, especially not part of the typical open water course one attends today.

I'm aware of several instances where these things and more have failed the scuba diver. Large groups inevitably get separated and depending on the comfort level of those within that group, being aware and able to act outside one's planned dive buddy is often neglected. There's a certainty that all of those divers don't have similar diving experiences not to mention haven't been keeping up on their diving skills. Have you ever heard, "Jimmy hasn't dove in a while, will you go with him?" How about, "Who needs a dive buddy? [hands go up...] Great, you two dive together." Instant dive buddy is not a good idea, but being responsible for a diver that hasn't sought out a refresher course is a risk that recreational divers shouldn't be placed in or expected to fill. With that being said, refresher course are not created equal!

I witnessed several small things that independently were minor, but collectively seemed like that either the instructor, the shop, or even the group failed at.


  • Everyone was in a hurry to get dives done and leave the dive site on day 2 and not do any additional dives after completing their open water or specialty certifications
  • The dive site was left with garbage or other leftovers from individuals that failed to make a general sweep and inspection before leaving
  • A couple of divers had broken equipment yet no one was able to fix it, had the tools for it's repair, spare parts, or even a suggestion of going to the local dive shop (half a mile away) to be able to do their dives
  • A diver left the dive site before completing their certification dives without telling the instructor in charge while another failed to check in with the motel to let them know they are on the property or staying in a community room
  • Scuba gear was left out and in piles on the ground possibly leading to stepping on or stumbling over it, not to mention the possibility of loss or theft
  • Rinse bucket was left filled and not emptied or cleaned
  • Some divers failed to pay for additional air fills and the instructor had to settle their bill
  • One diver thought that lodging was included in the cost of their certification

After all is said and done, no one is perfect, running a business is difficult, and being responsible for other's lives is a large commitment. Being a scuba diving instructor is often not the dream job many think it's going to be but if you commit yourself to making sure everything is being covered, it can be very rewarding. Please don't forget that we are fulfilling our student's dreams and the paycheck should be your last consideration.



#diveinstruction #scuba #pugetsound #openwaterweekend #coldwaterdiving #limitedvisibility #scubadivinginstructor #naui #padi #sdi #advanceddiver #drysuitdiver #divererror #thebigpicture

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Individual Professional Liability insurance for DAN members has been reduced to $649 for instructors and $379 for Divemasters

BE SURE TO THANK NAUI FOR MAKING THIS HAPPEN...!!!

DAN RRG Announces Upgrades to its Professional Liability Program
Durham, NC (June 14, 2017) –DAN Risk Retention Group (DAN RRG), a wholly owned subsidiary of Divers Alert Network® (DAN®), is pleased to announce upgrades to its Professional Liability offering for the 2017-18 program year.

Beginning July 1, 2017, DAN’s liability program will be available to all dive professionals and dive businesses. Our goal is to make DAN your first choice for professional liability protection.

Drawing on its expertise in dive accident management and the strength of its other insurance programs DAN has improved the program to make it the best in the industry. With litigation on the rise comprehensive liability protection is critical to a safe and sustainable business.

Policies are available for dive professionals at every level - Instructors, Divemasters, Free Diving and Swimming Instructors, those in training, and those who have retired. Additionally, all DAN Professional Liability programs are backed by two of the largest reinsurance companies in the world – Lloyds of London and Gen Re, ensuring the security and long-term viability of the program.


Based on our analysis of data from the 2016 year, and feedback from DAN members and the dive community, DAN has implemented the following changes:

1.Lower Premiums – A successful first year has allowed DAN RRG to reduce premiums for the 2017-18 program year. Effective for all 2017 renewals and new purchases after June 1, 2017, prices will be reduced approximately 15%. The cost of Individual Professional Liability insurance for DAN members has been reduced to $649 for instructors and $379 for Divemasters.

2.Online Enrollment – To expedite the application process and get coverage in place at the earliest possible time, dive professionals can now complete and submit their application online. Once the application is approved, all supporting documents related to a member’s Professional Liability policy are available 24/7 through the member’s DAN account.

3.Unlimited Defense Costs – To ensure that policyholders receive the full benefit of their policy limits, the DAN RRG policy can now be purchased with a rider which provides unlimited defense costs and removes these costs from the aggregate limit. This means you get the full benefit of the minimum coverage of $1 million per event, $2 million aggregate for bodily injury and property damage.

4.Rebreather Training - Now available at no additional cost to protect professionals who provide all levels of instruction.

5.Risk Mitigation – No one plans to have an accident, but there are numerous programs available from DAN to mitigate your risk. When you enroll as a DAN Professional Member you gain access to all DAN health and safety resources, including our new Prepared Diver Program and Student Medical Expense Coverage. Provided at no cost, these programs are designed to make diving safer and provide insurance coverage for students should an accident occur.

“We are extremely pleased to be able to improve the already excellent Professional Liability Program and continue to offer sustainable, reliable, and cost-effective solutions for the dive industry’s liability needs”, said Bill Ziefle, President and CEO of DAN. “These improvements make it easier and more cost effective for instructors to protect themselves from risk, and allow them to focus on improving diver safety and working towards the DAN Mission of making every dive safe.”

About DAN: DAN is the world’s most recognized and well respected dive safety organization, with more than 35 years of commitment to the safety and wellbeing of divers. DAN’s research, medical services programs and global response initiatives have created an extensive network capable of providing divers around the world with vital services – from the prevention of accidents through safety programs and education to the facilitation of lifesaving evacuations.

To learn more or to become a DAN member, visit DAN.org.

#scuba #liabilityinsurance #DAN  #DiversAlertNetwork #NAUI

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

An Open Letter to Don Hoch, Agency Director Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission and others

Juan Carlos Aguilar
PO Box 2397
Lake Oswego, OR 97035
503-935-2698




Don Hoch, Agency Director
Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission
Associated Departments, Members, and Constituents
P.O. Box 42650
Olympia, WA 98504-2650





Dear Mr. Hoch, Departments, Members, and Constituents:


I'm writing to you to share an ongoing issue at one of the State Parks. In this case, Battle Ground Lake State Park. I've been going there for almost seven years. I don't feel that there is a resolution to this issue, so in order to rectify the issue, I've decided to not return, nor encourage others to visit.

A little background about myself. I spent 10 years in banking, finally quitting in 2006. Deciding to take time off and rediscover myself, I found scuba diving. Loving it, I continued through most of the recreational courses eventually finding technical diving. In 2008, I decided to learn to teach and completed a program to do so. After years of traveling around the country and to many exotic international dive destinations, I made my way to the Pacific Northwest to teach full time. I've been teaching full time to students as I find them, most being in the Portland, Vancouver, and Northern California areas. I chose the Pacific Northwest because of the abundance of lakes and the dives sites in and around the Puget Sound. These waters hold some of the most beautiful and amazing diversity even rivaling tropical destinations!

Battle Ground Lake was a regional destination that I could take divers wishing to learn, advance their skills, and even enjoy the amazing flora and fauna. There is a resident Bald Eagle I point out that everyone enjoys seeing catching fish as well as a pair of Mallards that live their throughout the year that come to shore to say hello upon our arrival. As with most bodies of water, many love to fish. I've dove with animals as large as Humpback Whales and schools of newly hatched fry, so being in the water with aquatic creatures is one of the joys of scuba diving I've come to love dearly.

As with most fields that require specialized training, there are those that excel while others that only do enough just to collect a paycheck. While the life of a scuba diving instructor may seem glamorous and there is a lot of diving, it is a lot of work, requires a physical toll on the body, and even has moments of danger because as you know, there is risk involved with scuba diving. I don't own a retail dive shop and I do not sell scuba diving equipment. I only teach diving. I've made it a point to make sure my students receive training above and beyond the standards of all the certifying agencies. It is only by having a respect for the equipment, the environment, the underwater world, and a grasp on safe diving practices do those I teach come home to their loved one's at the end of every dive day.

One of the aspects of scuba diving I admire most is an admiration for the diverse environments that thrive in these varied waters I've explored. So much so, I even saw a freshwater jellyfish1 in Battle Ground Lake last year. Sadly, this is an invasive species, but one of my students got to see it. The last reported sighting was in 2004.2 My report can be found below.3 Battle Ground Lake is not free from other introductions. In particular, an unprecedented amount of fishing line, fishing hooks, fishing lures, and lead weights which are surely damaging to plants and animals.4 This is also accompanied by an obscene amount of waste and trash.

Every year, numerous dive shops bring divers and make it a point to do dives that remove this trash. These “clean-up” dives hardly touch the surface of the amount that needs to be removed. One aspect of every scuba diving certification agency is to promote a respect for the environment, promote the health of the waters we dive in, and most of all to minimize, reduce, and if possible, eliminate any injury to the creatures living in these areas. I was in the lake on June 11 and June 12, 2017. As expected, we saw a bewildering amount of trash, fishing line, lead weights, and various garbage.

June 11th was the day in particular that I have to tell you about. Before entering the water, I provide an extended briefing that describes the site, possible hazards, procedures for diving on a soft and silty lake bottom and the risks of diving in a body of water with limited visibility and entanglement hazards. My personal training also includes wreck penetration, cave diving, and zero visibility environments, so you can conclude that staying away from those hazards is not only practical, but necessary for those that are not trained in those specialties!

After exiting the water a group of fishermen approached us and told us that we broke all their lines. I tried to explain how that is impossible to do so, but I can explain what probably happened. Upon seeing the bubbles, the fishermen thought their lines would become entangled in the divers and reeled them in quickly. There is a large underwater wooden platform that those lines were in the middle of. By reeling in faster than they would otherwise, their lines became caught and hence broken by their own actions. As you imagine, scuba diving requires moving from one place to another. No matter where divers are in the lake, it is possible that the two could meet.

Here is where their lack of understanding about scuba diving exists. Divers do not walk on the lake bottom. Actually, we are neutrally buoyant. What that means is that we are neither rising or falling. If a fishing line was to come into contact with a diver, it would actually take the diver to the surface. This unsafe act is why no diver will engage fishing line, rope, or cables underwater. Additionally, as the diver ascended, the diver would actually become positively buoyant and lighter in the water. While diving in environments with fishing line, divers are instructed to never touch fishing line as entanglement is a dangerous reality. No diver would ever enter a new environment and choose to become entangled and hauled to the surface.

Additionally, some of the fishermen said that we might have grabbed their lines and broke them intentionally. This also is unlikely and frankly, impossible. Divers in the lake are wearing thick neoprene gloves which makes grabbing fishing line impossible. The only way that a diver could break a line if the test strength was low enough would be to wrap it around each hand and then to pull each hand apart. Not only would this be incredibly dangerous if a line was being reeled in, but the chance of being impaled by a fish hook is a risk as well. During this day of diving, each of us were also able to see a half dozen fish, some in various stages of decay that were hooked, entangled, and had died because of the inability to free themselves.

I don't imagine that it is any fisherman's goal to let the fish die entangled at the lake bottom. If you're wondering if our presence in the water frightens the fish, on the contrary, the fish are inquisitive and come up to divers all the time. Divers do not scare the fish away. The discussion from the fisherman included a choice of various vulgarities as well as someone throwing rocks at the divers in the water. The ranger on duty talked to both of our groups and was very diplomatic, however could do nothing for either party. It seems that every year there are fishermen that report that divers are interfering with their fishing. The lack of understanding about what we do in the water is incomprehensible to people on the shore.

While there are far more fisherman using the lake than divers, the fisherman are vastly responsible for the amount of waste, fishing line, hooks, lead weights, and various refuse found in the water. If divers stop cleaning up the lake, it is only a matter of time before fishing is impossible. Therefore, I have no other option than to move forward with and encourage divers to avoid Battle Ground Lake. This is not because of the sport of fishing, but it is because of the hateful attitudes and experiences that myself and other divers have been experiencing on a regular and ongoing basis. It is only a matter of time before a physical altercation occurs and with so many other places to dive, there is no reason to continue with the ongoing harassment or danger to these divers. I was under the impression that the lake was for all to use, but our group has not been met with any considerations only accusations.

I've attached a copy of the Washington State Parks' Mission, Vision, and Values Statements. These concepts and ideas match diver's goals, but it appears that fishermen are exempt from stewardship and are unwilling to accept responsibility for their actions...

It is really disappointing that fisherman are creating an environment of entitlement and have facilitated a need for this action.

Mission
The Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission cares for Washington's most treasured lands, waters, and historic places. State parks connect all Washingtonians to their diverse natural and cultural heritage and provide memorable recreational and educational experiences that enhance their lives.
Vision
Washington's state parks will be cherished destinations with natural, cultural, recreational, artistic, and interpretive experiences that all Washingtonians enjoy, appreciate, and proudly support.
Core Values
The agency has adopted the following core values:
Commitment to stewardship that transmits high quality park assets to future generations
Dedication to outdoor recreation and public enjoyment that welcomes all our citizens to their public parks
Excellence in all we do
Involving the public in our policy development and decision making
Support for one another as we translate our mission into reality




Regrettably,




Juan Carlos Aguilar





Thursday, June 8, 2017

JCA Elite Scuba T-Shirts -- Quisnam Hic Ad Tonsorem



New T-Shirts Soon To Be Ordered!

Pre-orders are taken now and will be ordered in 30 days...

_________________

to place order, go to: https://cash.me/$JCAEliteScuba
"input $24" -- "your name" -- "email addresss" -- "t-shirt size"
_________________

Front side has Finbert and back side JCA Elite Scuba logo and a special message! YOU know what it means...

$24 for local and if anyone wants it shipped, what ever cost will be (will bill later for shipping)

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CONTINUED SUPPORT...!!!

#scuba #jcaelitescuba #finbert #scubashirt

-------------------------

New JCA Elite Scuba T-Shirts... Pre-Orders taken now. Ordering in 30 day...



New T-Shirts Soon To Be Ordered!
Pre-orders are taken now and will be ordered in 30 days...

_________________

to place order, go to: https://cash.me/$JCAEliteScuba
"input $24" -- "your name" -- "email addresss" -- "t-shirt size"

_________________

Front side has Finbert and back side JCA Elite Scuba logo and a special message! YOU know what it means...

$24 for local and if anyone wants it shipped, what ever cost will be (will bill later for shipping)

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CONTINUED SUPPORT...!!! #scuba #jcaelitescuba #finbert #scubashirt

Monday, June 5, 2017

Used and Warehouse Deals from Amazon... many returns that were never used!

http://amzn.to/2sC8pNO

#scuba #useddiveequipment #scubasales
Used and Warehouse Deals from Amazon... many returns that were never used!


Saturday, June 3, 2017

The Global Food Challenge -- It's not a pretty picture

"Will the sport of scuba diving end by 2050?" a review of the article by Lauren Mowery

#scuba #padi #laurenmowery #drewrichardson #parisaccords #globalwarming #oceanconservation #2050 #coralreefs #scubadiving

So, the latest political debate is the, "Paris Accords." Before these two articles, I knew very little about it, but after reading up on it, I'm seeing the same pattern that has always existed. First, a little clarification. I do not lean towards a political ideology. With this said, I have a lot of opinions about many things, but this commentary will be about two things: scuba and responsibility (and how I tie the two together).

The articles that I'm going to discuss are reprinted at the bottom with direct links to where I found them, however without the inundation of the crazy amount of ads that make it almost impossible to actual navigate it. I'd recommend reading it from here, rather than there.

Scuba, first. 

The article, "Will the sport of scuba diving end by 2050?" written by Lauren Mowery. This is 100% PADI advertising propaganda! I don't know who these people think they are, but no one writes like this, let alone talks like this. As far as the content, I'll address it as well. These articles are PADI's way creating an outward appearance of independent thoughts around scuba, diving, and the environment. Every time I've tried to have a discussion with a PADI instructor I've always encountered this wall as if they've been trained to never talk to anyone about their training practices, about their divers, or about the inner workings of the PADI enterprise. It's like it is a cult and any time questions anything about it, they immediately go on the defensive. I don't get it. Now, to be fair, I love confrontation, but I'm also not afraid to admit when I'm wrong and at the very least be able to sit down and have a conversation about the topics at hand. For me, the topics generally revolve around scuba!

"Yesterday, Donald Trump withdrew from the Paris climate agreement. Donald Trump -- not all Americans. In fact, the majority of the U.S. wanted to remain in the accord. Politics aside, while nobody yet knows the true impact of this potentially fateful decision, scientists have already modeled a variety of detrimental repercussions from preventing a global temperature increase of 2 degrees. In some areas of the world, the effects of climate change are real and evident."

The majority of the US? Really? As I came to find out, I knew very little about what this "accord" was all about. As far as global warming, while there is an upwards trend in the overall temperatures that will impact the planet, I believe it is too late to fix the problem. That doesn't mean that I don't believe we shouldn't try to stop making it worse, but I know what drives the politics associated with decisions of everything tied to the factors that lead to this calamity -- greed and money! The easiest argument for me about one of the greatest factors aiding this issue is the process of animal agriculture, eating and use of animal products, and the correlating damages caused by the infrastructure around it. This editorial does not revolve around around this topic so I won't go into it with any greater detail, but suffice it to say, if divers are being addressed, the first most logical step in effecting the oceans, waterways, lakes, rivers and streams are to stop removing their inhabitants! It really seems like an incredible conflict of interest to go diving and that evening enjoy a meal consisting primarily of the creatures you just swam with.

"As a 17-year open water diver certified by PADI (Professional Association of Diving Instructors), I've witnessed the rapid degradation of our coral reefs. Gray, broken, and dead. Dwindling schools of colorful fish. Increasingly, that description fits a large number of dive sites around the world. Last month, I dove in the Bahamas. Not long after, Nevis. After we surfaced near St. Kitts, the dive master admitted nearly 80% of the surrounding coral was declared lifeless. Confirming these anecdotal impressions was the recent news about the Great Barrier Reef: In the last two decades, the 25 million-year-old ecosystem has bleached to the point of fear for its total and complete extinction."

Why do PADI divers tell everyone that they are a PADI diver? I rarely if ever hear non-PADI divers (non-dive professionals) throw in the fact that they are a diver from this particular certifying agency, their certification date, and then tell their listening public what that agency acronym stands for. I realize that this is an article that non-divers may read, but the typical conversation goes like this, "Hi, I'm Carlos. I learned to dive 11 years ago. The things I love most about diving are..." As you see, straight to the amazing thing that divers love about the activity all the while leaving out their certifying agency. 

As far as dead reefs, I remember seeing dead coral on the Great Barrier Reef in 2008 and thought it was terrible. However, the coral that is dead doesn't need protecting, the remaining living coral does. When ever an argument about the damage done to the fragile dive sites around the world emerge, it's always about the damage that is done. Perhaps, it is only a matter of semantics but to demonstrate the necessity for conservation, intervention, and even protection, one typically asks for what they need to manage what is left. "Only 20% of the reef system remains..." versus "80% of the reef is dead." When ever someone asks for help, they ask for what they need, describes their current condition, and even it's current state -- "I only have 200psi left -- NOT, I've used 2800psi. It even seems quite futile to even want to help when one becomes aware that 80% of anything is gone. Calls to action make more sense when one's audience understands how little of something is still there.

Similarly, describing a 25 million year old ecosystem is incorrect. Living coral is built on the skeletons of those communities that came before. What one sees are it's current residents. Stating that a 25 million year old ecosystem is 80% dead again reiterates the impossibility of saving anything. Stating that the reef system is 100 years old, 50 years old, and the like and stating that only 20% of it is left really describes how much damage and in such a short period of time has effected it. It would also be more accurate in stating that areas that have received protection have seen a measurable revitalization in the last 20, 30, or 40 years since practices were implemented. One cannot see or measure change in a 25 million year old system in proportion to a person's lifespan and the truth is, no one cares about what was here or what will be here in 25 million years -- SAD, but true.

"While the ramifications of a dying ocean far outweigh the interests of a sport, the question should still be asked: what will happen to SCUBA (Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) diving if our coral reefs are dead?"

Really? I learned to dive in Lake Mead. A reservoir. The majority in the US learns to dive away from reef systems. While there are very impressive ecosystems, "The Florida Reef (also known as the Great Florida Reef, Florida reefs, Florida Reef Tract and Florida Keys Reef Tract) is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States." [1] If you are lucky enough to live in Southern Florida, or Hawaii, then you are in the minority. Cold water diving in fresh water lakes and reservoirs; kelp forests of the Pacific coast, and inlet water ways like the Puget Sound in the PNW; and wreck diving and cave diving on the east coast are HUGE dive attractions. I've even dove in a hot water spring in Homestead Crater, Utah!

"I contacted the PADI organization for their thoughts on the looming crisis. Divers serve as one class of guardian to our aquatic habitats, bearing witness to changes while vested in their protection. I connected with Dr. Drew Richardson, President and CEO, PADI Worldwide. He's been with PADI for thirty years, diving since 1971. I've been lucky enough to have dived on all continents and both the Arctic and Antarctic polar ice environments. I love the adventure and exploration diving offers he said." 

"Looming crisis?" Divers should be the best, first group to take action to protect aquatic habitats, but they only do so in token and superficial means. As far as connecting to a scuba certification agency for their thoughts on environmental awareness and actions the world need to take, that's like asking automobile mechanics to lead the fight for zero-emissions vehicles. PADI, SSI, SDI, NAUI, and the dozens of other certifying agencies primary goal is the marketing of scuba. So much so, that when one thinks of scuba the reason one agency comes to mind versus another is that they have done a better job of marketing it, not because they are the best or they have a global voice for environmental change! Then, to contact the CEO of PADI to talk about the looming crisis is laughable. I'm going to make it a point to contact Mr. Richardson, to ask what I believe to be the bigger crisis effecting all diving, and I'll post the outcome...

"I posed a few questions in the interview, touching on dive community responsibility, science and innovation, and great places to still experience the beauty of our underwater world. Fortunately, the answers aren't as gloomy as you'd expect."

"Climate change, ocean warming, acidification, and bleaching events are killing our reefs. Given the current pace of decline, what do you think is the future of the sport?" 

"Unquestionably, there are serious and formidable issues threating the world's coral reefs. That said, I'm a firm believer in engagement, problem identification and mitigation. My life philosophy is to remain optimistic and focused on a future hope. In my mind, there is no other option. Hope is the anchor to the soul. The danger is that we lose hope, or we feel like there's nothing to be done. In the wake of our 50th anniversary at PADI, we have deepened our commitment to ocean health and conservation. Our 25 million divers across the planet are becoming active as a force for good and driving towards a healthier planet and healthier reefs on local, national and international levels. The PADI organization is committed to being a global force for good. We are passionate about creating a preferred view of the future in healthier oceans. As the largest diver training organization in the world, has the reach and influence to mobilize divers to be citizen activists. We train one million new divers each year across the planet who can engage in strategic alliances, have a powerful voice and get involved in real solutions to drive change."

Spoken like a true politician! "I'm a firm believer in engagement, problem identification and mitigation." I have to totally disagree. So much so, that PADI has a reputation that precedes itself. Three areas in particular: quantity of certifications issued (over quality of diver produced); the lack of accountability (producing poorly trained divers that effect the industry negatively); failing to supporting it's instructors (when an accident happens, the instructor is thrown under the bus). PADI's recent 50 year anniversary coupled with their 25 million divers presented an interesting perspective that many don't correlate. Right about that time, PADI was sold for $700,000,000. While the value of a company is often the number of shares outstanding multiplied by it's stock prices, because they are not publicly traded, coming up with a value isn't as clear cut. However, I divided the 25 million divers into the $700 million dollar sale to come up with a value of $28 per diver. I know that this is not a clear value of the business, but in regards to where the value in a business like PADI is (or should be), the divers ARE the business! They are mine. I ran the same equation and came up with $244.42 per certification; $269.86 per diver. I'm not going to disclose how much income I've made or the number of students I've had in the last 9 years, but as you can see, each student is more valuable to me; even from a financial perspective.

"As the largest diver training organization in the world, [PADI] has the reach and influence to mobilize divers to be citizen activists. We train one million new divers each year across the planet who can engage in strategic alliances, have a powerful voice and get involved in real solutions to drive change."

So, how many does this reach extend to, then? As the largest training organization, that would also mean that they are responsible for the largest drop out rate, largest proportion of accidents, law suits, and even the greatest amount of damage to reef systems by PADI's newly trained divers. The industry estimates that 80% of those that take diver training are no longer in it; 50% within 5 years, and that the average diver logs 6 dives a year! Without experience, how can one learn to do anything but be on the reefs? Proper buoyancy and mastery of skills take years. How does that create reach? Even with attrition rates high as this, divers that invest into scuba diving are often 45 years of age, fully employed, and occupy themselves with other activities than just scuba. 

"As for the future of the sport of scuba diving, I feel there are strong tailwinds which will drive future growth in scuba diving. These include a growing middle class, a strong interest in adventure/action sports, strong global tourism trends, and environmentally conscious millennials to name a few. We are all about a future of engaging millions of new divers, training them well to be confident and comfortable divers, encouraging and enabling them to seek diving adventure and exploration of the planet's underwater realm and paying it forward as good stewards of ocean and marine life health. Baselines on coral reef communities may shift due to a variety of drivers, but there will be a strong and growing interest in underwater exploration and immersion - it's a transformational and life-changing personal journey that we look forward to offering up to the planet for decades to come."

Tailwinds? You mean they are being pushed? Being pushed isn't a reflection of the diver (or industry) willing to make differences to the fragile ecosystem we've been speaking about. "Stewards of the ocean and marine life health." When? For decades to come? There is enough evidence to prove that in all reality, it COULD BE too late. Here are some articles that talk about the possibilities. There are populations of marine that are gone! Yes! They are gone; will never come back; are critically endangered; and while some successes are being seen, we are at that point that the "hail mary pass" is the hope many are looking for. I've got the impression that what most are saying is that someone else will do the work. Mr. Richardson is right about one thing, scuba is transformational and it was definitely life-changing! Scuba, especially those that focus on it as their sole sporting activity will attest to that. I question whether scuba divers will have any impact on the greater global community if they can't even do it for themselves.

It May Soon Be Too Late to Save the Seas
https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-04-27/it-may-soon-be-too-late-to-save-the-seas

Is It Too Late to Avoid the Worst Impacts of Climate Change?
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reducing-atmospheric-co2/

Is it Too Late to Save the Ocean?
http://vergecampus.com/2016/05/late-save-ocean-pollution/

It might be too late to save the oceans
http://www.rawstory.com/2015/08/it-might-be-too-late-to-save-the-oceans/

Unsustainable fishing
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/problems/problems_fishing/

"What can divers do to help, whether in their personal lives or within the framework of the sport?" 

"Loads. Start with the man in the mirror, stay informed and do what you can to make the world a better place and become a more powerful catalyst for change. We already are seeing this in thousands of individuals on a local level and we are helping to get their messages out. All of us who care about these issues can amplify engagement efforts to support life below the waters of this world and support initiatives which promote the sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine resources. We encourage divers to align with like-minded business and organizations. The diving community will become powerful change agents who share a like-minded love, mission and passion to be a force for good and tackle and mitigate the problems which threaten our ocean planet."

I think this will be the first question I ask Mr. Richardson. "When did you look in the mirror and decide that you have to set an example?" Awareness isn't a first step as you can be laying on the couch eating fish and chips and "feel" motivated but never change. When he speaks of the thousands of individuals, is he referring to vegans? I never got that memo. I became vegan before learning to dive! How about Greenpeace or WWF? Surely they are part of the thousands that are part of that crew? Possibly, but they do it for a living. Even those that occasionally volunteer for them have other things they care about. The ironic part about the oceans and protecting it is that it's survival is the planet's survival. Everyone's short-sightedness is in part because they are not properly informed, but the greater issue is that the planet needs uniform and complete agreement and collaboration for this process to succeed. What that really means is that EVERYONE has to be on board. The US can't be solely responsible for fixing the world's problems. Our neighbors and even those across the globe must have a consensus and a uniform plan to attack the problem. We can't even feed, clothe, and shelter the world's less fortunate, so saving scuba won't be on the top of anyone's list.

If I had to summarize, in my opinion, it's too late. The planet will survive without us, however we will not survive without her. Until everyone can uniformly and unequivocally decide to stop shitting on her, nothing will change. Token measures, token accords, and goodwill gestures aren't enough. Margaret Mead has been attributed in saying, "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has." While I believe that individuals can make local differences, these thoughts emerged in the late 1970's and our planet has seen a global population boom adding an additional 3 billion people. If estimates are correct, the planet will see 9.7 billion by 2050. 

Take a look at the following for some interesting facts about food production and the planet's challenges that lie ahead:

The Global Food Challenge Explained in 18 Graphics
http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/global-food-challenge-explained-18-graphics









































































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ADDITIONAL SOURCES
 [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_Reef

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Will the sport of scuba diving end by 2050?
https://www.forbes.com/sites/lmowery/2017/06/02/will-the-sport-of-scuba-diving-end-by-2050/

"Will The Sport Of Scuba Diving End By 2050?"

Lauren Mowery
https://www.instagram.com/chasingthevine/
https://twitter.com/chasingthevine


Yesterday, Donald Trump withdrew from the Paris climate agreement. Donald Trump -- not all Americans. In fact, the majority of the U.S. wanted to remain in the accord. Politics aside, while nobody yet knows the true impact of this potentially fateful decision, scientists have already modeled a variety of detrimental repercussions from preventing a global temperature increase of 2 degrees. In some areas of the world, the effects of climate change are real and evident. Consider our ocean reef systems.

As a 17-year open water diver certified by PADI (Professional Association of Diving Instructors), I've witnessed the rapid degradation of our coral reefs. Gray, broken, and dead. Dwindling schools of colorful fish. Increasingly, that description fits a large number of dive sites around the world. Last month, I dove in the Bahamas. Not long after, Nevis. After we surfaced near St. Kitts, the dive master admitted nearly 80% of the surrounding coral was declared lifeless. Confirming these anecdotal impressions was the recent news 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jun/07/the-great-barrier-reef-a-catastrophe-laid-bare 

about the Great Barrier Reef: In the last two decades, the 25 million-year-old ecosystem has bleached to the point of fear for its total and complete extinction.

While the ramifications of a dying ocean far outweigh the interests of a sport, the question should still be asked: what will happen to SCUBA (Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) diving if our coral reefs are dead?

I contacted the PADI organization for their thoughts on the looming crisis. Divers serve as one class of guardian to our aquatic habitats, bearing witness to changes while vested in their protection. I connected with Dr. Drew Richardson, President and CEO, PADI Worldwide. He's been with PADI for thirty years, diving since 1971. I've been lucky enough to have dived on all continents and both the Arctic and Antarctic polar ice environments. I love the adventure and exploration diving offers he said.

I posed a few questions in the interview, touching on dive community responsibility, science and innovation, and great places to still experience the beauty of our underwater world. Fortunately, the answers aren't as gloomy as you'd expect. I've published the interview in its entirety, below.

Climate change, ocean warming, acidification, and bleaching events are killing our reefs. Given the current pace of decline, what do you think is the future of the sport? 

Unquestionably, there are serious and formidable issues threating the world's coral reefs. That said, I'm a firm believer in engagement, problem identification and mitigation. My life philosophy is to remain optimistic and focused on a future hope. In my mind, there is no other option. Hope is the anchor to the soul. The danger is that we lose hope, or we feel like there's nothing to be done. In the wake of our 50th anniversary at PADI, we have deepened our commitment to ocean health and conservation. Our 25 million divers across the planet are becoming active as a force for good and driving towards a healthier planet and healthier reefs on local, national and international levels. The PADI organization is committed to being a global force for good. We are passionate about creating a preferred view of the future in healthier oceans. As the largest diver training organization in the world, has the reach and influence to mobilize divers to be citizen activists. We train one million new divers each year across the planet who can engage in strategic alliances, have a powerful voice and get involved in real solutions to drive change.

As for the future of the sport of scuba diving, I feel there are strong tailwinds which will drive future growth in scuba diving. These include a growing middle class, a strong interest in adventure/action sports, strong global tourism trends, and environmentally conscious millennials to name a few. We are all about a future of engaging millions of new divers, training them well to be confident and comfortable divers, encouraging and enabling them to seek diving adventure and exploration of the planet's underwater realm and paying it forward as good stewards of ocean and marine life health. Baselines on coral reef communities may shift due to a variety of drivers, but there will be a strong and growing interest in underwater exploration and immersion - it's a transformational and life-changing personal journey that we look forward to offering up to the planet for decades to come.

What can divers do to help, whether in their personal lives or within the framework of the sport? 

Loads. Start with the man in the mirror, stay informed and do what you can to make the world a better place and become a more powerful catalyst for change. We already are seeing this in thousands of individuals on a local level and we are helping to get their messages out. All of us who care about these issues can amplify engagement efforts to support life below the waters of this world and support initiatives which promote the sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine resources. We encourage divers to align with like-minded business and organizations. The diving community will become powerful change agents who share a like-minded love, mission and passion to be a force for good and tackle and mitigate the problems which threaten our ocean planet. Local fishing practices and pollution are other contributors to reef decline. 

What can divers do to positively impact those practices? 

Stay informed, get engaged, initiate conversations and educate others about the issues. We all can make informed choices about how we live our lives, what we eat who we do business with etc. We can support set asides, marine protected areas and hope spots and support sustainable development and life practices. Support the development of social norms and institutions that allow the responsible management of reefs. Policy-makers might help local communities and people live with reefs sustainably, and encourage people to be more invested in their local reefs. We don't get to live in an ideal world, we live in this one. You've likely read about 3-D reefs. 

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/3d-printed-reefs-coral-bleaching-climate/ 

What's your thought on how quickly those can be created to contribute to reef health and regeneration? What else may help, if anything?

I love the innovation and hope that is driving this initiative. Artificial reefs have been around a long time with mixed success. Time will tell if 3-D reefs can help restore on any longer-term or mass scale. 

What dive areas are still in good shape for viewing colorful fish and a lively reef? 

There are hundreds across the planet. As for tropical marine ecosystems-places like Palau, Sipadan, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and the Philippines. In the Caribbean Bonaire, Saba, much of the Bahamas, Las Rocas, and many areas in the Red Sea and the Maldives. There remains much beauty to be seen.

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EXCELLENT TRUMP: 5 Reasons Trump Is Right To Pull Out Of The Paris Accord
http://www.dailywire.com/news/17086/excellent-trump-5-reasons-trump-right-pull-out-ben-shapiro

EXCELLENT TRUMP: 5 Reasons Trump Is Right To Pull Out Of The Paris Accord
By: Ben Shapiro 
June 2, 2017 

On Thursday, President Trump made the first major move of his administration since the appointment of Judge Gorsuch to the Supreme Court: he withdrew from the Paris Accord, a non-treaty entered into by President Obama that committed the United States to serious economic deprivation in order to accomplish nearly nothing in terms of climate change. It’s true that Trump laid all that out in a well-written, fact-laden speech. The Left predictably went nuts — they’ve been lighting up buildings green (wasting energy) and quitting his economic council (who cares) and tweeting incessantly about the end of the world all day. But Trump is right. Here are five reasons why.

1. The Accord Was A Treaty, And President Obama Refused To Treat It Like One. President Obama joined the Paris Accord shortly before leaving office, but never sent the agreement to the Senate for ratification. There was good reason for that: it wouldn’t have been ratified. Instead, Obama simply assumed that America would now be bound by requirements to tamp down carbon emissions in serious ways. In his statement ripping Trump for pulling out of the agreement, for example, Obama stated, “the world came together in Paris around the first-ever global agreement to set the world on a low-carbon course and protect the world we leave to our children.” But none of that was true. Which meant that the accord was essentially symbolic, but would create a bevy of headlines about America abandoning global leadership every time we didn’t meet an arbitrary line not approved by the American people.

2. There Were Legal Implementation Problems With The Paris Accord. Donald McGahn, the White House counsel, spelled out that courts could theoretically use the Paris Accord to strike down Trump’s attempted rollback of carbon emissions regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency. The Left claimed that this was empty talk — no enabling legislation regarding the Paris Accord had been signed, so it was symbolic. But these are the same people who now say the world will burn up because we’ve pulled out of the accord, and the same people who think the courts should ignore law in order to strike down executive orders they don’t like.

3. It Would Have Had No Impact. Obama himself says, “The private sector already chose a low-carbon future.” So if that was true, what’s the need for governmental cram-downs, exactly? Beyond that, Trump is correct that MIT has estimated that even if the Paris Accord were implemented with current commitments by the various countries, the global climate would be lowered by a grand total of 0.2 degrees Celsius by the year 2100. Meanwhile, we’d put crippling regulations on our economy. MIT and the Left insist that other steps would follow the Paris Accord — but there’s no evidence of that.

4. It Let Other Countries Free-Ride. Obama said in his petulant statement, “It was bold American ambition that encouraged dozens of other nations to set their sights higher as well.” This is absolute nonsense. One of the reasons to be skeptical of the Paris Accord is that it asked nations for non-binding commitments on climate change. Non-binding. As Oren Cass pointed out at Commentary: China committed to begin reducing emissions by 2030, roughly when its economic development would have caused this to happen regardless. India made no emissions commitment, pledging only to make progress on efficiency—at half the rate it had progressed in recent years. Pakistan outdid the rest, submitting a single page that offered to “reduce its emissions after reaching peak levels to the extent possible.” This is a definition of the word “peak,” not a commitment. ... An April report by Transport Environment found only three European countries pursuing policies in line with their Paris commitments and one of those, Germany, has now seen two straight years of emissions increases. The Philippines has outright renounced its commitment. A study published by the American Geophysical Union warns that India’s planned coal-plant construction is incompatible with its own targets. All this behavior is socially acceptable amongst the climate crowd. Only Trump’s presumption that the agreement means something, and that countries should be forthright about their commitments, is beyond the pale.

5. It Put America Last. Obama and the Left have claimed for years that “green jobs” will be produced by government. There is no evidence of that happening. It’s a chimera. Van Jones, Obama’s “green jobs czar,” couldn’t point to any job creation for which he was responsible. We do know that additional regulations would cripple key industries in the United States without making up for them with these magical new “investments.” The private sector, as Obama recognizes, is already moving toward more efficient energy solutions. But this agreement wasn’t about forwarding that. It was about creating public pressure for the US government to intervene in its own economy, without requiring anything of those with whom we compete. Good for Trump. The Paris Accord was a meaningless sham, designed mainly to shame the United States into harming its own economy for the vicarious pleasure of others.

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The Global Food Challenge Explained in 18 Graphics
by Janet Ranganathan Janet Ranganathan - December 03, 2013
http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/global-food-challenge-explained-18-graphics

This post is part of WRI's blog series, Creating a Sustainable Food Future. The series explores strategies to sustainably feed more than 9 billion people by 2050. All pieces are based on research being conducted for the 2013-2014 World Resources Report.

The world is projected to hold a whopping 9.6 billion people by 2050. Figuring out how to feed all these people—while also advancing rural development, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and protecting valuable ecosystems—is one of the greatest challenges of our era.

So what’s causing the global food challenge, and how can the world solve it? We begin to answer these questions through a series of graphics below. For more information, check out the interim findings of Creating a Sustainable Food Future, a report produced by WRI, U.N. Environment Programme, U.N. Development Programme, and the World Bank.

What's Causing the Global Food Crisis?

Feeding an Exploding Population

The world’s population is projected to grow from about 7 billion in 2012 to 9.6 billion people in 2050. More than half of this growth will occur in sub-Saharan Africa, a region where one-quarter of the population is currently undernourished. 

Shifting Diets

In addition to population growth, world’s per capita meat and milk consumption is also growing—especially in China and India—and is projected to remain high in the European Union, North America, Brazil, and Russia. These foods are more resource-intensive to produce than plant-based diets. 

The Food Gap

Taking into account a growing population and shifting diets, the world will need to produce 69 percent more food calories in 2050 than we did in 2006. 

It’s Not a Distribution Problem

We can’t just redistribute food to close the food gap. Even if we took all the food produced in 2009 and distributed it evenly amongst the global population, the world will still need to produce 974 more calories per person per day by 2050. 

Agriculture’s Environmental Footprint

But we can’t just produce more food in the same way as today—we also must reduce food’s environmental impact. Agriculture contributes nearly one-quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions, uses 37 percent of landmass (excluding Antarctica), and accounts for 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawn from rivers, lakes, and aquifers. 

Climate Change and Water Stress Exacerbate the Challenge

Climate change is expected to negatively impact crop yields, particularly in the hungriest parts of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa. 

Growing water use and rising temperatures are expected to further increase water stress in many agricultural areas by 2025. 

The Energy-Food Nexus

Another major challenge is biofuels’ competition for land and crops. Producing 10 percent of all transport fuels from biofuels by 2050, as planned by some governments, would require 32 percent of global crop production but produce only 2 percent of global energy. It would also increase the food gap to roughly 100 percent. Conversely, eliminating the use of crop-based biofuels for transportation would close the food gap by roughly 14 percent. 

Food’s Role in Economic Development

Around 2 billion people are currently employed in agriculture, many of them poor. We need to close the food gap in ways that enhance the livelihoods of farmers, especially the poorest. 

The “Great Balancing Act”

Achieving a sustainable food future, then, requires meeting three needs simultaneously: closing the food gap, supporting economic development, and reducing agriculture’s environmental impact. 

What Are Some Solutions?

Reduce Food Loss and Waste

Roughly one-quarter of world’s food calories are lost or wasted between field and fork. Cutting this rate in half could close the food gap by about 20 percent by 2050. 

Shift to Healthier Diets

Beef is the least efficient source of calories and protein, generating six times more greenhouse gas emissions per unit of protein than pork, chicken, and egg production. Shifting just 20 percent of the anticipated future global consumption of beef to other meats, fish, or dairy could spare hundreds of millions of hectares of forest and savannah. 

Achieve Replacement Level Fertility

Reducing population growth can help hold down food demand. While most regions are projected to reach replacement level fertility—or the rate at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next—sub-Saharan Africa’s population is on course to more than double between now and 2050. 

Boost Crop Yields

Boosting yields is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa, which currently has world’s lowest cereal yields but will account for one-third of all additional calories needed in 2050. 

Improve Land and Water Management

Conservation agriculture—such as reduced tillage, crop rotations, and mulching—increased maize yields in Malawi. Combining these techniques with agroforestry—intercropping with trees—further increased yields. These practices could be scaled up on more than 300 million hectares in sub-Saharan Africa. 

Shift Agriculture to Degraded Lands

Shifting agriculture land expansion to degraded lands can prevent deforestation, protect resources, and curb climate change. For example, more than 14 million hectares of low-carbon degraded lands in Kalimantan, Indonesia are potentially suitable for oil palm development. 

Increase Aquaculture’s Productivity

As wild fish catches have plateaued, aquaculture has expanded, producing nearly half of fish consumed in 2009. To grow in a sustainable way, aquaculture will need to produce more fish per unit of land and water and reduce its reliance on wild-caught fish for feed. 

Closing the Food Gap

No one solution can create a sustainable food future. A menu of consumption- and production-focused strategies, including those presented here, can close the food gap and generate environmental, health, and development co-benefits. But governments, business, and others need to act quickly and with conviction to scale these solutions up. 

*Includes all crops intended for direct human consumption, animal feed, industrial uses, seeds, and biofuels.

Sources for Graphics

1.Growing Population: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (UNDESA). 2013. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. New York: United Nations. Total population by major area, region, and country. Medium fertility scenario.

2.Shifting Diets: Bunderson, W. T. 2012. “Faidherbia albida: the Malawi experience.” Lilongwe, Malawi: Total LandCare.

3.Food Gap: WRI analysis based on Alexandratos, N., and J. Bruinsma. 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 revision. Rome: FAO.

4.Food Distribution: WRI analysis based on FAO. 2012. “FAOSTAT.” Rome: FAO; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (UNDESA). 2013. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. New York: United Nations. Medium fertility scenario.

5.Agriculture's Environmental Footprint: WRI analysis based on IEA (2012); EIA (2012); EPA (2012); Houghton (2008); FAO (2011); FAO (2012); Foley et al. (2005).

6.Climate Change and Crop Yields: World Bank. 2010. World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. Washington, DC: World Bank.

7.Growing Water Stress: World Resources Institute and The Coca-Cola Company. 2011. “Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas Global Maps 1.0.” Accessible at http://wri.org/aqueduct. Cropped areas from Ramankutty, N., A. T. Evan, C. Monfreda, and J. A. Foley. 2008. “Farming the planet: 1. Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year 2000.” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 22: GB1003, doi:1010.1029/2007GB002952.

8.Energy-Food Nexus: Heimlich, R. and T. Searchinger. Forthcoming. Calculating Crop Demands for Liquid Biofuels. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

9.Food and Development: World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators. Accessible at: http://databank.worldbank.org/Data/Home.aspx (accessed December 13, 2012).

10.Great Balancing Act: WRI.

11.Annual Crop Production: WRI analysis based on Bruinsma, J. 2009. The Resource Outlook to 2050: By how much do land, water and crop yields need to increase by 2050? Rome: FAO; Alexandratos, N., and J. Bruinsma. 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 revision. Rome: FAO.

12.GHG Emissions from Animal Products: GLEAM in Gerber, P. J., H. Steinfeld, B. Henderson, A. Mottet, C. Opio, J. Dijkman, A. Falcucci, and G. Tempio. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock: A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Rome: FAO.

13.Current and Projected Fertility Rates: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (UNDESA). 2013. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. New York: United Nations. Total fertility by major area, region, and country. Medium fertility scenario.

14.Cereal Yields: Derived from FAO. 2012. “FAOSTAT.” Rome: FAO; graph by IFDC.

15.Maize Yields in Malawi: Bunderson, W. T. 2012. “Faidherbia albida: the Malawi experience.” Lilongwe, Malawi: Total LandCare.

16.Degraded Lands in Kalimantan: Gingold, B. et al. 2012. How to Identify Degraded Land for Sustainable Palm Oil in Indonesia. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

17.World Fish Production: FAO. 2012. “FishStatJ.” Rome: FAO.

18.Closing the Food Gap: WRI analysis based on Alexandratos, N., and J. Bruinsma. 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 revision. Rome: FAO.